Sambo (Russian: самбо) was created in 1930, combining over 200 types of regional martial arts in the Central Asian region of the former Soviet Union it is heavily influenced by Japanese, Chinese, Mongolian, Armenian, Georgian and Russian martial arts as well as French wrestling and a combat system known as "Tested" that was used by the Soviet army in World War 2. Its advanced moves target the joints of an opponent. The damage toward the joints is aimed to definitively obliterate the opponent’s ability to fight.
The self-defence methods of Sambo in the general public are governed by strict Russian laws, which offer a five-year prison sentence to anybody found to have used excessive violence during a self-defence situation. As a result, Sambo for the general public aims only to defend the life of a practitioner with the minimum force required. Sambo used by the Russian army and police however are allowed to follow a different philosophy. Sambo leaves no room for mercy. It’s a cold, mechanical martial art created for the purpose of surviving modern warfare and the constant struggle between life and death.
Utilized and developed for the military, Combat Sambo resembles modern mixed martial arts, including extensive forms of striking and grappling. Combat Sambo allows punches, kicks, elbows, knees, headbutts and groin strikes. Competitors wear jackets as in sport sambo, but also hand protection and sometimes shin and head protection. The first FIAS World Combat Sambo Championships were held in 2001. The World Combat Sambo Federation, based in Russia, also sanctions international combat sambo events.